Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, 4th Edition
by Richard Turton, Richard C. Bailie, Wallace B. Whiting, Joseph A. Shaeiwitz, and Debangsu Bhattacharyya
(5th Edition coming in 2018)
This book represents the culmination of many years of teaching experience in the senior design course at West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Nevada, Reno. Although the program at WVU has evolved over the past 35 years and is still evolving, it is fair to say that the current program has gelled over the past 25 years as a concerted effort by the authors to integrate design throughout the undergraduate curriculum in chemical engineering.
We view design as the focal point of chemical engineering practice. Far more than the development of a set of specifications for a new chemical plant, design is the creative activity through which engineers continuously improve the operations of facilities to create products that enhance the quality of life. Whether developing the grassroots plant, proposing and guiding process modifications, or troubleshooting and implementing operational strategies for existing equipment, engineering design requires a broad spectrum of knowledge and intellectual skills to
be able to analyze the big picture and the minute details and, most important, to know when to concentrate on each.
Our vehicle for helping students develop and hone their design skills is process design rather than plant design, covering synthesis of the entire chemical process through topics relating to the preliminary sizing of equipment, flowsheet optimization, economic evaluation of projects, and the operation of chemical processes. The purpose of this text is to assist chemical engineering students in making the transition from solving well-posed problems in a specific subject to integrating all the knowledge that they have gained in their undergraduate education and applying this information to solving open-ended process problems. Many of the nuts-and-bolts issues regarding plant design (for example, what schedule pipe to use for a given stream or what corrosion allowance to use for a vessel in a certain service) are not covered. Although such issues are clearly important to the practicing engineer, several excellent handbooks and textbooks are available to address such problems, and these are cited in the text where applicable.
In the fourth edition, we have rearranged some of the material from previous editions, and we have added two new chapters on advanced concepts in steady-state simulation (Chapter 16) and dynamic simulation of processes (Chapter 17). We have also added extensive material on the choice of thermodynamics package to use for modeling processes containing electrolyte solutions and solids (Chapter 13) and a brief introduction to logic control (Chapter 18). Additional pedagogical material has been added to each chapter to outline the key concepts and major lessons to be learned from each chapter.
We continue to emphasize the importance of understanding, analyzing, and synthesizing chemical processes and process flow diagrams. To this end, we have expanded Appendix B to include an additional four (making a total of 15) preliminary designs of chemical processes. All the projects have been moved to the CD accompanying the text, along with the chapters on outcomes assessment, written and oral communications, and a written report case study and the projects from Appendix C of the first edition.
The arrangement of chapters into the six sections of the book is similar to that adopted in the second edition. These sections are as follows:
- Section I—Conceptualization and Analysis of Chemical Processes
- Section II—Engineering Economic Analysis of Chemical Processes
- Section III—Synthesis and Optimization of Chemical Processes
- Section IV—Analysis of Process Performance
- Section V—The Impact of Chemical Engineering Design on Society
- Section VI—Interpersonal and Communication Skills
In Section I, the student is introduced first to the principal diagrams that are used to describe a chemical process. Next, the evolution and generation of different process configurations are covered. Key concepts used in evaluating batch processes are included in Chapter 3, and the concepts of product design are given in Chapter 4. Finally, the analysis of existing processes is covered. In Section II, the information needed to assess the economic feasibility of a process is covered. This includes the estimation of fixed capital investment and manufacturing costs, the concepts of the time value of money and financial calculations, and finally the combination of these costs into profitability measures for the process. Section III covers the synthesis of a chemical process. The minimum information required to simulate a process is given, as are the basics of using a process simulator. The choice of the appropriate thermodynamic model to use in a simulation is covered, and the choice of separation operations is covered. Process optimization (including an introduction to optimization of batch processes) and heat integration techniques are covered in this section. In addition, new material on advanced concepts using steady-state process simulators (Chapter 16) and the use of dynamic simulators (Chapter 17) has been added, and the chapter on process regulation has been expanded and rounds out Section III. In Section IV, the analysis of the performance of existing processes and equipment is covered. The material in Section 4 is substantially different from that found in most textbooks. We consider equipment that is already built and operating and analyze how the operation can be changed, how an operating problem may be solved, and how to analyze what has occurred in the process to cause an observed change. In Section V, the impact of chemical engineering design on society is covered. The role of the professional engineer in society is addressed. Separate chapters addressing ethics and professionalism, health, safety, and the environment, and green engineering are included. Finally, in Section VI, the interpersonal skills required by the engineer to function as part of a team and to commu-nicate both orally and in written form are covered (on the CD). An entire chapter (on the CD) is devoted to addressing some of the common mistakes that students make in written reports.
Finally, three appendices are included. Appendix A gives a series of cost charts for equipment. This information is embedded in the CAPCOST program for evaluating fixed capital investments and process economics. Appendix B gives the preliminary design information for 15 chemical processes: dimethyl ether, ethylbenzene, styrene, drying oil, maleic anhydride, ethylene oxide, formalin, batch manufacture of amino acids, acrylic acid, acetone, heptenes production, shift reaction, acid-gas removal by a physical solvent, the removal of H2S from a gas stream using the Claus process, and finally coal gasification. Appendix B is now located on the CD accompanying the book. This information is used in many of the end-of-chapter problems in the book. These processes can also be used as the starting point for more detailed analyses—for example, optimization studies. Other projects, given in Appendix C, are also included on the CD book. The reader (faculty and students) is also referred to our Web site at www.che.cemr.wvu.edu/publications/projects/, where a variety of design projects for sophomore- through senior-level chemical engineering courses is provided. There is also a link to another Web site that contains environmentally related design projects.
For a one-semester design course, we recommend including the following core:
- Section I—Chapters 1 through 6
- Section III—Chapters 11, 12, and 13
- Section V—Chapters 25 and 26
For programs in which engineering economics is not a prerequisite to the design course, Section II (Chapters 7–10) should also be included. If students have previously covered engineering economics, Chapters 14 and 15 covering optimization and pinch technology could be substituted.
For the second term of a two-term sequence, we recommend Chapters 19 through 23 (and Chapters 14 and 15 if not included in the first design course) plus a design project. Alternatively, advanced simulation techniques in Chapters 16 and 17 could be covered. If time permits, we also recommend Chapter 18 (Regulation and Control of Chemical Processes with Applications Using Commercial Software) and Chapter 24 (Process Troubleshooting and Debottlenecking) because these tend to solidify as well as extend the concepts of Chapters 19 through 23, that is, what an entry-level process engineer will encounter in the first few years of employment at a chemical process facility. For an environmental emphasis, Chapter 27 could be substituted for Chapters 18 and 24; however, it is recommended that supplementary material be included.
We have found that the most effective way both to enhance and to examine student progress is through oral presentations in addition to the submission of written reports. During these oral presentations, individual students or a student group defends its results to a faculty panel, much as a graduate student defends a thesis or dissertation.
Because design is at its essence a creative, dynamic, challenging, and iterative activity, we welcome feedback on and encourage experimentation with this design textbook. We hope that students and faculty will find the excitement in teaching and learning engineering design that has sustained us over the years.
Finally, we would like to thank those people who have been instrumental to the successful completion of this book. Many thanks are given to all undergraduate chemical engineering students at West Virginia University over the years, particularly the period 1992–2011. In particular, we would like to thank Joe Stoffa, who was responsible for developing the spreadsheet version of CAPCOST, and Mary Metzger and John Ramsey, who were responsible for collecting and correlating equipment cost information for this edition. We also acknowledge the many colleagues who have provided, both formally and informally, feedback about this text. Finally, RT would like to thank his wife, Becky; JAS would like to thank his wife, Terry; and DB would like to thank his parents, Sambhunath and Gayatri, wife Pampa, and son Swagat for their continued support, love, and patience during the preparation of this fourth edition.
Table of Contents
SECTION I CONCEPTUALIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES
- Chapter 1 Diagrams for Understanding Chemical Processes
- Chapter 2 The Structure and Synthesis of Process Flow Diagrams
- Chapter 3 Batch Processing
- Chapter 4 Chemical Product Design
- Chapter 5 Tracing Chemicals through the Process Flow Diagram
- Chapter 6 Understanding Process Conditions
SECTION II ENGINEERING ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES
- Chapter 7 Estimation of Capital Costs
- Chapter 8 Estimation of Manufacturing Costs
- Chapter 9 Engineering Economic Analysis
- Chapter 10 Profitability Analysis
SECTION III SYNTHESIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES
- Chapter 11 Utilizing Experience-Based Principles to Confirm the Suitability of a Process Design
- Chapter 12 Synthesis of the PFD from the Generic BFD
- Chapter 13 Synthesis of a Process Using a Simulator and Simulator Troubleshooting
- Chapter 14 Process Optimization
- Chapter 15 Pinch Technology
- Chapter 16 Advanced Topics Using Steady-State Simulators
- Chapter 17 Using Dynamic Simulators in Process Design
- Chapter 18 Regulation and Control of Chemical Processes with Applications Using Commercial Software
SECTION IV ANALYSIS OF PROCESS PERFORMANCE
- Chapter 19 Process Input/Output Models
- Chapter 20 Tools for Evaluating Process Performance
- Chapter 21 Performance Curves for Individual Unit Operations
- Chapter 22 Performance of Multiple Unit Operations
- Chapter 23 Reactor Performance
- Chapter 24 Process Troubleshooting and Debottlenecking
Section V The Impact of Chemical Engineering Design on Society
- Chapter 25 Ethics and Professionalism
- Chapter 26 Health, Safety, and the Environment
- Chapter 27 Green Engineering
- Chapter 28 Teamwork
- Appendix A Cost Equations and Curves for the CAPCOST Program
Material on the CD-ROM
- Chapter 0 Outcomes Assessment
- Chapter 29 Written and Oral Communication
- Chapter 30 A Report-Writing Case Study
- Appendix B Information for the Preliminary Design of Fifteen Chemical Processes
- B.1 Dimethyl Ether (DME) Production, Unit 200
- B.2 Ethylbenzene Production, Unit 300
- B.3 Styrene Production, Unit 400
- B.4 Drying Oil Production, Unit 500
- B.5 Production of Maleic Anhydride from Benzene, Unit 600
- B.6 Ethylene Oxide Production, Unit 700
- B.7 Formalin Production, Unit 800
- B.8 Batch Production of L-Phenylalanine and L-Aspartic Acid, Unit 900
- B.9 Acrylic Acid Production via the Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Propylene, Unit 1000
- B.10 Production of Acetone via the Dehydrogenation of Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA), Unit 1100
- B.11 Production of Heptenes from Propylene and Butenes, Unit 1200
- B.12 Design of a Shift Reactor Unit to Convert CO to CO2, Unit 1300
- B.13 Design of a Dual-Stage Selexol Unit to Remove CO2 and H2S from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas, Unit 1400
- B.14 Design of a Claus Unit for the Conversion of H2S to Elemental Sulfur, Unit 1500
- B.15 Modeling a Downward-Flow, Oxygen-Blown, Entrained-Flow Gasifier, Unit 1600
- Appendix C Design Projects
- Project 1 Increasing the Production of 3-Chloro-1-Propene (Allyl Chloride) in Unit 600
- Project 2 Design and Optimization of a New 20,000-Metric-Tons-per-Year Facility to Produce Allyl Chloride at La Nueva Cantina, Mexico
- Project 3 Scale-Down of Phthalic Anhydride Production at TBWS Unit 700
- Project 4 The Design of a New 100,000-Metric-Tons-per-Year Phthalic Anhydride Production Facility
- Project 5 Problems at the Cumene Production Facility, Unit 800
- Project 6 Design of a New 100,000-Metric-Tons-per-Year Cumene Production Facility
Errata for 4th Edition
1. Chapter 3 – Example 3.8 – should be replaced with , same for products B and C.
2. In Example 3.5, the last part of Figure E3.5 should be modified as follows:
This gives a cycle time of 21.5 h not 19.5 h, which affects the result of Example 3.6.
3. In Example 3.6, for the multiproduct campaign, the cycle time is changed from 19.5 h to (33.0 – 11.5) = 21.5 h. This in turn changes the number of batches from 25 to (500/21.5) = 23
4. In Problem 3.14, “intermediate storage” should read “product storage”, in line 2 of part d.
5. For Problem 10.12, Table P10.12 should read:
6. Figure 15.1 should read:
7. In Table 16.5(b) the following change for Case 2 should be made:
8. In Problem 16.13 the units given for the reaction rates are shown in the wrong place:
9. In Problem 16.15, the second line should read, “Consider the purge-stream flow to be 20% of the total flow of Stream 6,…”
10. Problem 17.11 mentions a Figure P17.5 but it should state Figure P17.11. Also the two references to FC-1102 in Problem 17.11b should be changed to FC-1108.
Errata for 3rd Edition
1. Page 46, Problem 12, 4th line should read “connected to the bottom of the
2. In Figure 3.7 – the intermediate product storage for product C is not required. The reactor charge should just be delayed such that the reactor sequence CAB is continuous with a break between B and C.
3. Problem 9.13c should ask for “effective annual interest rate” not “nominal interest rate.”
4. Problem 9.18b “…balance at end of year
5. Problem 10.23 should have plant life of 10 years.
6. Problem 10.27 should have the additional investment for Alternative 2 as 0.35.
7. Problem 13.17 should be deleted as no information is given about MTBE
8. Problem 17.9 should read 1.5 kg/s of air
9. Problem 19.23, part c is just a continuation of part b.
10. Chapter 25, problem 6 should be removed – it is a repeat of problem 1
11. Appendix B.1, Table B.1.3, the diameter of the reactor should be 1.02 m (not 0.72 m).
12. Appendix B, maleic anhydride project B.5, Table B.5.1, information is missing for Streams 9, 10, 11, and 12:
13. Figures B.2.1, B.3.1, B.4. 1, B.5.1, and B.7.1 have been modified to show control valves correctly positioned on the discharge side of pumps.